Vol.7 No.1 (January) 2015
This study contributes to understand the managerial effectiveness perception of executives in selected service centers of Punjab by assessing and validating the related constructs that have been developed and standardized. Employing a standardized scale, a diverse sample was collected from executives of service centers of UT, and a total of 100 responses was collected and evaluated using principal component analysis to provide a clearer picture of the construct of managerial effectiveness perception of Indian managers at different levels of hierarchy. The results of the study provide a comprehensive and fresh in-depth view of managerial effectiveness in selected Indian organizations as the results of the present study are somewhat different from those gained with the original scale. An important finding of the study is reassembling of the variables / items of the original scale with the significant value and correlation pattern for perception of managerial effectiveness. These observations ensure for human resource management (HRM) policy and practices in contemporary Indian service organizations.
Changing trends in economy and customers’ expectations are directing banks to search the new ways of income generation. Banks are now moving towards diversification of their revenues to reduce risk of their portfolios and to increase the profitability. In effort of diversifying the income generation activities, banks are indulging in non- interest income generation activities by reducing their reliance on traditional banking activities. Diversification of income generating activities (either interest based or non-interest based) can enhance the profitability by reducing overall risk involved in banking operation. Contrary to this, over reliance on income diversification can increase the risk and reduce the risk adjusted return of banks. Considering the importance of income diversification for developing financial markets, this study aims to fill the gap in existing literature of Pakistan byempirically exploring the relationship between income diversification and banking performance for the period of 2006-2013. The results of the study have shown positive impact of income diversification on performance of banks in Pakistan. The findings of the study are important for bankers to understand how income diversification affects the performance of banks. The findings are also helpful to the banks’ management and regulators to understand the role of income diversification in value creation and risk-reduction for the stakeholders.
Market, hybrid or hierarchy has been in place and widely used by agribusiness firms to acquire farm products and these coordination mechanisms help smallholders to link to the global food chain. With the transaction cost economics framework, however, this paper analyses the determinants for agribusiness firms’ choice of market or hybrids to acquire farm produce in the local food supply chain context. This paper aims at examining the key drivers for choosing contract or spot market mechanisms by agribusinesses in Northern Ethiopia. Structured questionnaires were administered to 247 traders in 10 towns of Tigray. Once conducting the Chow test, the pooled data was considered for the probit model and the results of the empirical model has indicated that product characteristics (quality adulteration and perishability), market information and firm characteristics were significantly driving agribusinesses to contract base transactions. Besides, the desire to postpone payments (credit based payment) appears to be a determinant factor for agribusinesses contract engagement. Based on the findings of the study, improving the capacity of dairy farmers and agribusinesses, strengthening of quality assurance mechanisms, collective action of farmers to consolidate supply, information providing institutions, and financing mechanism/credit facilities are recommended as interventions to improve the integration of agribusinesses and smallholders in the study area.